# 8th Computer Problem Solving New Course UNIT-04

Q1. Tick the correct choice for the following questions.

i. How many elements a problem has?

ii. What is the solution to a problem called?

a. 1

b. 2

d. 4

b. Problem Statement

c. Identifying Problem

d. Ignoring Problem

iii. A ____________________________ is an obstacle, hurdle, difficulty or challenge, or any situation that needs to be removed or solved.

b. Solution

c. Situation

iv. What is the name of the problem statement element that we give to the computer as raw material to solve the problem?

b. Output

c. Process

d. Ideas

v. ____________________________ is the result which is obtained by processing the input data.

a. Input

c. Process

d. Algorithm

vi. Which symbol is used to show the decision process in the flowchart?

a. Oval

b. Rectangle

d. Parallelogram

vii. In flowchart, which symbol uses only one flow line?

b. Processing

c. Decision

d. Input

viii. Which symbol is used to represent a process in the flowchart?

a. Oval

c. Diamond

d. Parallelogram

## Q2. Fill in the blanks.

i. ____________________________ techniques are helpful in solving problems.

ii. A ____________________________ is a concise description of the problem to be solved.

iii. ____________________________ involves performing actions or operations on input data to achieve the desired goals and find the solution to the problem.

iv. ____________________________ is a process of pictorial illustration for solving a problem.

v. The input / output in a flowchart is represented by a ____________________________ shape.

## Q3. Match Column A with Column B. ## Q4. Give brief answers to the following questions.

i. What are the key features of a problem statement?

Answer: Key features of a problem statement

A problem statement is a concise description of the problem to be solved. A problem statement should have the following features.

• Clarity and precision
• Identification of what would be studied
• Identification of key factors or variables
• Identification of key concepts and terms

ii. What is flowchart?

A flowchart diagram can represent an algorithm, workflow or process. It shows the steps as boxes of different kinds and their order by connecting the boxes with arrows. This diagrammatically representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowchart helps in finding the solution of a problem and facilitate in showing the input, process and output of the problem.

iii. What are the uses of flowchart?

Flowchart helps in finding the solution of a problem and facilitate in showing the input, process and output of the problem.

iv. What are the advantages of drawing a flowchart?

The following are some benefits of flowcharts

• It helps in understanding the logic of the problem-solving processes.
• It gives the pictorial representation of the processes involved in the problem solution.
• It shows the flow processes sequentially.

v. What is the use of decision symbol?

The diamond symbol is used to show a decision process in a flowchart.

Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol, but two flow lines could come out, one for each possible answer, should leave the decision symbol. ## Q5. Give detailed answers to the following questions.

i. Explain the elements of a problem statement.

There are three elements of a problem statement.

a. What is given – the Input

b. The processing requirements

c. What is required – the Output

We will explain these elements one by one.

a. What is given – the Input

Input is such element in problem statement that give to the computer as raw material to solve the problem. It is also called data or known facts. It can be extracted from the present situation of the problem statement. The following examples explain the concept of the Input.

Problem-1: Preparing Tea

In the above problem the input material would be an Electric Kettle, Water, Tea bag, Milk and Sugar.

Problem-2: To find the average of five subject marks

In problem 2 input are the marks of five subjects, For example

English                         = 80

Urdu                            =87

Mathematics               =90

Science                        =83

Computer Education   =95

b. Processing Requirements

This involves performing actions or operations on input data to achieve the desired goals and find the solution to the problem. In Program 1 the processing requirements are

• Boiling water by plugging the kettle to electric switch
• Adding sugar, tea bag and milk to boiled water

In Problem 2 the processing requirements are:

• Find the sum of five subject marks using the following formula

SUM = English + Urdu + Mathematics + Science + Computer Education

SUM = 80 + 87 + 90 + 83 + 95 =435

• Finding the average, using the following formula:

AVERAGE = SUM / 5

AVERAGE = 435 / 5

AVERAGE = 87

c. What is required – the Output

Output is the result which is obtained by processing the input data. It is also called the solution. It is the change or improvement in the situation or behavior and the target or goal one is aiming for the problem solution.

In program 1 the output required is “The prepared tea, served in a cup”

In program 2 the output requirements are

• SUM = 435
• AVERAGE = 87

ii. What is flowcharting? How flowcharts help in problem-solving?

Flowcharting

Flowcharting is a process of pictorial illustration for solving a problem. Flowcharting is a tool for analyzing processes. Flowcharting can be used in computer systems design, programming, engineering, and science etc.

Flowchart

A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents a process, showing the steps as symbols of various kind, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation can give a problem and facilitate in showing the input, process and output of the problem.

The following are some benefits of flowchart.

• It helps in understanding the logic of the problem-solving processes.
• It gives the pictorial representation of the processes involved in the program solution.
• Furthermore, it shows the flow of processes sequentially.

iii. Explain different symbols used to draw flowcharts with examples.

Answer: Symbols used to draw flowcharts

Flowcharting use standardized sets of symbols. Flowchart Symbols with their description and examples are given in the following table. ## Recommended

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